The agreement was for Northern Ireland to be part of the United Kingdom and remain in place until a majority of the population of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland wished otherwise. If this happens, the British and Irish governments will be “obliged” to implement this decision. The UK government has said Brexit will not mean a return to the hard border.  According to Theresa May, then Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny in 2016, this agreement should be maintained after the UK`s withdrawal from the EU.  This is where backstop – insurance to avoid further inspections or new infrastructure at the border – comes into play after Brexit. At the end of October 2018, the National Court of Auditors warned that it was already too late to prepare the necessary Irish border controls in the event of a Non-Deal Brexit in March 2019, a weakness that would be quickly exploited by organised crime.  Lars Karlsson wrote “Smart Border 2.0: Avoiding a hard border on the island of Ireland for Customs control and the free verkehr of persons” (17 November). It contained proposals to be seen below. At first glance, it appears to run counter to Section 43 of the Joint Phase 1 report, in which there would be “no physical infrastructure or related controls and controls.” But it is worth listening as we hear constantly about technological solutions from the British government and others, right down to the problem of the “hard border”. The solution also relies on an “improved version of the Swedish-Norwegian customs concept” (p. 39).
As I will show later, the chief researcher of the European Research Group thinks that Sweden-Norway deserves a look. The cross-border part of the agreement includes 12 areas of cooperation controlled by the North-South Council of Ministers (NSMC). On 10 October, Mr Johnson and Prime Minister Leo Varadkar held “very positive and promising” talks, which led to the resumption of negotiations and a week later, on 17 October, Johnson and Jean-Claude Juncker announced that they had reached a withdrawal agreement (subject to ratification) that would replace the backstop with a new protocol on Northern Ireland.”  a) Keir Starmer (Shadow Secretary of State after leaving the European Union) (Belfast Telegraph, 29 January 18): “Brexit is a challenge for Northern Ireland, but with real cooperation we can find a way forward.” In this regard, Mr Starmer makes labour the solution to all the difficulties of Brexit (including the border) – “a final agreement that will preserve the benefits of the internal market without the maintenance of standards, rights and protection measures [and] a customs union with the European Union as a viable option in the long term.” In addition, border elections in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland are expected to take place at different times, which is potentially contrary to the Good Friday agreement. As far as Brexit is concerned, a “hard border” means a limited number of authorized (and physically controlled) crossing points, occupied by customs officers and police and supported by military personnel in times of tension.  Drivers of vehicles crossing the vehicle must report goods during transport, commercial carriers must submit bill of lading and prove that the goods meet the minimum standards of the area concerned.